Forex oanda 2

OANDA Review 2023.

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Your capital is at risk. Spreadbetting only available in UK.

Table of Contents.

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Please Note: In our review of OANDA, we focused on the services provided by OANDA Global Markets Ltd (, authorized and regulated by the British Virgin Islands Financial Services Commission. We conducted our tests using the MetaTrader 4 and MetaTrader 5 platforms. Some features and services may vary depending on where you reside.

The OANDA Group has multiple subsidiaries that are licensed to offer products to clients around the globe. The OANDA subsidiary with whom a client contract depends on their country of residence. Each subsidiary provides different products via different platforms, so clients will experience OANDA differently depending on their country of residence. CFDs are not available in the United States and Spreadbetting only available in the UK.

The Big Picture.

Founded in 1996, OANDA is a leading multinational broker offering trading in CFDs on forex, indices, commodities, bonds, and cryptocurrencies. Four platforms are available to clients: OANDA Trade web, OANDA Trade desktop, MetaTrader 4, and the OANDA mobile app. OANDA has 8 corporate entities across the globe and is overseen by multiple top-tier regional regulators.

Key Takeaways in 2022.

We evaluated OANDA across nine categories (Trust/Stability, Fees, Tradable Instruments, Account Types, Deposit/Withdrawal, Research, Customer Support, Education, Platform/Tools). OANDA excelled in the category of research with high-quality content from in-house analysts in article, video, and podcast formats. Third-party resources such as news from Dow Jones and analysis from Autochartist round out the offering. Beginners can benefit from outstanding educational materials and demo accounts. Advanced traders will appreciate the range of advanced platforms and can also take advantage of API access.

What Sets OANDA Apart from Other Brokers?

OANDA offers a larger range of trading platforms and tools than most brokers. Educational and research materials are also above average for the industry. OANDA is one of the most widely regulated brokers globally and one of only a small minority of forex and CFD brokers that offer their services in the United States.

What types of traders are a good fit for OANDA?

OANDA can cater well to both beginners and advanced traders. The OANDA Trade web platform is highly intuitive and a good fit for beginners. Experienced traders can benefit from the wide range of tools and research available. OANDA Global Markets has a professional account type available that allows for a higher level of leverage.

OANDA Pros and Cons.

Accepts US clients. $0 minimum deposit. Overseen by multiple top-tier regulators. Strong research and educational materials. Broad range of trading platforms and tools. Reliable customer service. No CFDs on shares. Bank transfer withdrawal fees. OANDA Trade web lacks 1-click trading and alerts.

Your capital is at risk. Spreadbetting only available in UK.

About the Author.

Starting his career in finance on the floor of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, Dan later gained insight into the forex industry during his time as a Series 3 licenced futures and forex broker. Dan also traded at a couple of different prop trading firms in Chicago.

How Do We Rate?

When trading forex and CFDs, it is crucial to know a broker's strengths and weaknesses. That is why FX Empire developed its proprietary rating system. We put the knowledge and expertise of our reviewers to work to bring you the most suitable brokers. A total of 200 variables have been analyzed to help you choose your broker wisely. This chart describes all the categories we evaluated and rated.

Visit our methodology page to learn more about our review and rating process.

OANDA Main Features.


FCA (United Kingdom), ASIC (Australia), CFTC (United States), IIROC (Canada), FSA(JP) (Japan), FSC (Belize), MAS (Singapore), MFSA (Malta)

Supported Languages.

English, Spanish, German, Chinese.

Products (CFD)

Currencies, Commodities, Indices, Stocks, Crypto.

Max Leverage.

1:30 (FCA), 1:30 (ASIC), 1:50 (CFTC), 1:45 (IIROC), 1:25 (FSA(JP)), 1:200 (FSC), 1:20 (MAS), 1:30 (MFSA)

Trading Desk Type.

Market Maker.

Trading platforms.

MT4, MT5, Oanda fxTrade.

OANDA accepts clients from your country:

Choose your country:

Your capital is at risk. Spreadbetting only available in UK.

OANDA Full Review.


How Do We Test A Broker's Trust?

When choosing a broker, trustworthiness is one of the most important things to keep in mind. Always check the broker's regulations, know how financially secure the firm is, and find out whether the broker is transparent and reliable. These factors, calculated into our score, will help you understand if your money is safe.

OANDA is one of the largest and oldest brokers in the forex industry and is overseen by 8 regulators across the globe. Clients of OANDA Global Markets Ltd benefit from segregated funds and leverage of up to 1:200. We found OANDA to be highly transparent in how it is regulated, client fees, and the company’s background.

OANDA FSC Certification.

This section will cover how the different entities of OANDA are regulated and how this impacts you as a trader. We rate regulators on a scale of 1 to 3, with 1 reflecting the highest level of trust.

OANDA Europe Limited is authorized and regulated by the UK Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), reference number 542574. We rate FCA as a Tier 1 regulator. OANDA Corporation is a registered Futures Commission Merchant and Retail Foreign Exchange Dealer with the US Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) and a member of the National Futures Association (NFA) reference number 0325821. We rate CFTC and NFA as Tier 1 regulators. OANDA (Canada) Corporation ULC is regulated by the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada (IIROC). We rate IIROC as a Tier 1 regulator. OANDA Asia Pacific Pte Ltd (Co. Reg. No 200704926K) holds a Capital Markets Services Licence issued by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS). We rate MAS as a Tier 2 regulator. OANDA Australia Pty Ltd is regulated by the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC) ABN 26 152 088 349, AFSL No. 412981. We rate ASIC as a Tier 1 regulator. OANDA Japan Co., Ltd. is registered with the Institute Financial Futures Association of Japan (FFAJ), subscriber number 1571. We rate FFAJ as a Tier 2 regulator. OANDA Europe Markets Limited is authorized and regulated by the Malta Financial Services Authority (MFSA) as Category 3 Investment Services Licence Holder to provide services to the residents in the European Union. We rate MFSA as a Tier 2 regulator. OANDA Global Markets Ltd is authorized and regulated by the British Virgin Islands Financial Services Commission (FSC), number: SIBA/L/20/1130. We rate FSC as a Tier 3 regulator.

Why is it important to know where your broker subsidiary (entity) is regulated?

Different regulators provide different levels of protection. For example, OANDA clients in the United Kingdom benefit from the oversight of the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA). The FCA requires that clients have negative balance protection, which means they cannot lose more than their deposit.

In addition, when trading with a broker authorized by the FCA, client funds are also protected by the Financial Services Compensation Scheme (FSCS). The FSCS protects investments of up to £85,000 if a firm becomes insolvent. By contrast, a trader working with a broker entity regulated offshore would not necessarily have these benefits.

The table below breaks down the protections and benefits by entity, regulator, and region.

Entity OANDA Europe Ltd. OANDA Corporation OANDA Australia Pty Ltd. OANDA (Canada) Corporation ULC OANDA Asia Pacific Pte Ltd. OANDA Japan Co., Ltd. OANDA Europe Markets Ltd. OANDA Global Markets Ltd. Country/Region UK US Australia Canada Singapore Japan Malta British Virgin Islands Regulation FCA CFTC, NFA ASIC IIROC MAS FFAJ Malta FSA BVI FSA Segregated Funds Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Negative Balance Protection Yes No No No No No Yes No Account Insurance Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes No Standard Leverage 1:30 1:50 1:30 1:50 1:20 1:25 1:30 1:200.

Regulatory requirements are subject to change. We gathered the data listed above in May 2022.

Stability and Transparency.

In our tests for the Trust category, we also cover factors relating to stability and transparency. Here, we focus on how long the broker has been in business, the size of the company, and how transparent they are in terms of information being readily available.

OANDA was founded in 1996, making it one of the oldest forex brokers. According to its LinkedIn page, the company is headquartered in New York and has 201-500 employees.

In our research, OANDA showed a good level of transparency in its regulatory status, with a listing of all regulators on the About Us page.

Charges are clearly outlined on the Fees page. The Terms of Use document can be found in the website’s footer.

OANDA’s history and senior management are covered in-depth on the About Us page. Overall, we rated OANDA as having a high level of transparency, better than average for the industry.


How Do We Test A Broker's Fees?

Broker fees can be difficult to understand. We test the broker's platforms and examine commissions, spreads, and overnight fees to ensure that you can determine if trading with this broker is worth your time and money.

OANDA provides spreads that range from average to competitive. Swap fees and account-related fees are standard for the industry. An inactivity fee and a fee for withdrawals via bank wire are two that traders should be aware of.

Trading Fees.

We tested the spreads at OANDA across different asset classes using the OANDA Trade web platform at 8 AM GMT and 2 PM GMT on July 20th, 2022. We made our tests at two different times to allow greater perspective. 8 AM GMT is the London open when there is a great deal of liquidity in the forex market and tighter spreads in currency pairs. 2 PM GMT is during the New York trading session.

Instrument Spread AM Spread PM EUR/USD 1.3 Pips 1.2 Pips GBP/JPY 2.6 Pips 2.2 Pips Gold 40 Pips 48 Pips Light Crude Oil 4 Pips 3 Pips Dow 30 2 Pips 1.5 Pips Dax 40 1.7 Pips 1.7 Pips.

Swap Fees.

Swap fees (the cost of holding a position overnight) were average at OANDA.

In the table below, you can see the Swap Long (the cost/credit of holding a buy position overnight) and the Swap Short (the cost/credit of maintaining a sell position overnight) for one full-sized contract. A full-sized contract is 100,000 units of the base currency (the first currency quoted in the pair). We recorded the data on May 27th.

Instrument Swap Long Swap Short EUR/USD Charge of $3.18 Credit of $1.11 GBP/JPY Credit of $0.25 Charge of $2.44.

Non-Trading Fees.

OANDA Global Markets Ltd charges an inactivity fee of £10 per month for accounts that have been dormant for 12 months.

Are Fees at OANDA Competitive?

OANDA’s spreads range from average to competitive in some cases. Swap fees and non-trading fees are average for the industry. Overall, we rate OANDA’s fees as slightly better than average.

Platforms and Tools.

How Do We Test A Broker's Platforms and Tools?

Platforms are where you trade, so they must be secure, fast, and accessible while offering you the tools you need to succeed. Each broker's desktop, web, and mobile platforms are evaluated according to the order types, speed of execution, ease of use, and other 'need to know' features.

OANDA shines in this category, with a range of proprietary and third-party platforms available. Clients can choose between the OANDA Trade web platform, the OANDA Trade desktop platform, MetaTrader 4 and the OANDA mobile app. The selection is better than average for the industry.

Clients can choose between two desktop platforms (OANDA Trade Desktop and MetaTrader 4), the web-based OANDA Trade Web, and the OANDA mobile app for Android and iOS.

OANDA Trade Web Platform.

OANDA Trade Web Platform.

The OANDA Trade web-based platform is well designed and easy to navigate. It is also customizable, allowing you to change the layout to suit your preference. Multiple chart layouts are available, and traders can view up to 8 charts at once.


OANDA Trade web platform charts.

Charting is provided by TradingView, which features over 100 indicators, over 50 drawing tools, 9 time frames, and 11 chart types. Users can also trade directly from the chart.


Order entry panel in the OANDA Trade web platform.

The range of order types on the OANDA Trade web platform is impressive. Standard order types such as market, limit, and stop-loss are available. It is possible to set time in force conditions; you can set your limit of stop-loss order to expire after a set time, for example, 2 days or 1 week.

In addition, trailing stop-loss orders and guaranteed stop-loss orders (GSLO) are also available. GSLOs are similar to standard stop-loss orders, but they differ in that they guarantee to close your trade at a specified price for an additional fee. The fee varies based on the instrument traded and can be seen on the order window.

Alerts and 1-click trading are not available on the OANDA Trade web platform, but they are available on the OANDA mobile app. Overall, we rate this web platform as better than average for the industry, with a robust range of features and solid charting.

OANDA Trade Desktop Platform.

OANDA Trade Desktop Platform.

OANDA’s desktop platform has the same strong range of order types as the web platform. Charting has 24 indicators, 9 drawing tools, 9 time frames, and 10 chart types. One of the most useful advantages of the charts is that you can adjust the candlesticks to bid, ask, and mid. This adjustment is not possible on the mobile application. 1-click trading and trading from the chart are available. Clients have the flexibility of trading sizes of just 1 unit.

The platform includes analytical tools designed to identify trading strengths and weaknesses using behavior patterns. The software uses the past six months of trading statistics and is available on live accounts only.

We rate the OANDA Trade desktop platform as powerful and feature-rich. However, the look and feel are a bit dated, and it is not as intuitive as the OANDA Trade web platform. The desktop platform is available in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, German, Japanese, Chinese, and Russian.

MetaTrader 4 Desktop.

MetaTrader 4 Desktop Platform.

OANDA offers MetaTrader 4 for desktop, which includes advanced functions such as copy trading and automated trading.

MetaTrader 4 is available in 39 languages, from Arabic to Vietnamese. The platform provides popular features such as:

Alerts. This feature allows traders to be updated when an instrument reaches a specific price level. Alerts can be delivered via audio, email, or push notification to a mobile device. Watchlists. Traders can set up a list of their favorite instruments and follow live quotes in a Market Watch panel. 1-click trading. This feature allows traders to execute orders with a single click and no secondary confirmation. Being able to place a trade with a single click saves time and is especially useful for short-term traders. Trading from the chart. MT4 also allows users the convenience of trading directly from the chart.

MetaTrader also delivers when it comes to the range of available order types. The platform offers the following order types:

Market Order. This is an order to buy or sell an instrument at the current best available price. Limit Order. This is an order to buy or sell an instrument at a specified price or better. Stop Loss Order. This is an order to buy or sell an instrument that is triggered when the price reaches a specified level. Trailing-Stop Order. This is a stop-loss order that can be set at a defined percentage or dollar amount away from an instrument’s current market price. It is used to secure profits when you are in a winning trade, while not having to exit the position.

Charting features are robust. MetaTrader 4 offers:

30 technical indicators. These include classic trend indicators, volume indicators, and oscillators. 23 analytical objects. These include lines, channels, Gann, and Fibonacci tools. 9 time frames Each instrument can be displayed in multiple time frames, from one minute to one month. 3 chart types. Traders can choose between Bar Charts, Japanese Candlestick Charts, and Line Charts.

MetaTrader is also popular due to its copy trading and automated trading features.

Trading Signals. Signals in MetaTrader 4 allow users to copy other traders’ activity in real-time automatically. Automated trading. MetaTrader 4 allows users to develop, test, and apply Expert Advisors (EAs). EAs are programs that monitor and trade markets using algorithms. They find opportunities according to set parameters and then either create a notification or automatically open a trade.

The MetaTrader 4 desktop platform is one of the most feature-rich and popular trading platforms globally. It does not have the most beautiful interface, and it does require some time and effort to learn, but that is typical of advanced platforms.

OANDA Mobile App.

OANDA Mobile App.

OANDA’s mobile app has an intuitive and user-friendly interface. The same range of standard and advanced order types seen on the web and desktop platforms are available on the app. The layout is customizable, so you can see your favorite instruments and adjust the size of charts to suit your preference.

The charting within the app is solid and has the following features:

16 time frames, ranging from 5 seconds to one month. 8 chart types, including Japanese candlesticks, Heikin Ashi, and OHLC (open-high-low-close). 16 overlays, from Bollinger Bands to exponential moving averages. 17 indicators, including MACD (moving average convergence/divergence) and RSI (relative strength index). 13 drawing tools, from pivot points to Fibonacci retracements.

Unlike the web interface, 1-click trading and alerts are available via the app. Real-time news from Dow Jones and an economic calendar are also built-in. Two-factor authentication (2FA) is available to add an extra level of security when you sign in to OANDA’s trading platforms from either your computer or mobile device. If you need to top up your account on the go, it is possible to add funds via mobile.

The app is available in English, German, Japanese and Chinese.

Order Execution.

OANDA acts as principal and not as an agent when executing client trades and acts as the sole execution venue. OANDA group companies look to the execution venues available to them for the pricing, hedging, and execution of orders.

Tradable Instruments.

How Do We Test A Broker's Tradable Instruments?

In this section, we check the broker’s market offering and how varied the instruments and asset classes are. It will allow you to check if they offer what you're looking for and what you can trade.

OANDA offers a strong range of forex, index, commodity, and bond CFDs. CFDs on cryptocurrencies and CFDs on shares are available in some regions. Overall, we rate the range of tradable instruments at OANDA as better than average.

Tradable Instruments at OANDA.

What are CFDs?

CFDs (Contract for Differences) are financial derivative products that allow traders to speculate in various markets without owning the underlying assets. Tradable instruments at OANDA Global Markets Ltd include the following assets:

45 CFDs on Currency Pairs . A currency pair combines two different currencies, with the value of one currency quoted against the other. For example, EUR/USD, which reflects the value of the euro measured in dollars. 19 Index CFDs . An index is a basket of trading instruments used to gauge a market sector, stocks within an exchange, or a country’s economy. 10 Commodity CFDs . Commodities are raw products, such as gold, oil, and metals. 228 CFDs on stocks . These include 50 CFDs on Spanish stocks, 100 CFDs on German stocks, 28 CFDs on Dutch stocks, and 50 CFDs on French stocks. A stock is a security that represents partial ownership of a corporation. Keep in mind that when trading stock CFDs you are speculating on the price of a stock without actually taking ownership of the underlying company.

In the tables below, you can see a selection highlighting the variety of instruments available at OANDA:

CFDs on Forex Major Pairs CFDs on Forex Minor Pairs GBP/USD | USD/CHF | EUR/USD| USD/JPY | AUD/USD | USD/CAD | NZD/USD AUD/SGD | EUR/AUD | GBP/JPY CFDs on Energies CFDs on Metals Natural Gas | Brent Crude Oil | WTI Crude Oil Silver | Copper | Gold CFDs on Indices CFDs on Stocks Japan 225 | Germany 40 | India 50 Adidas | Hermes | Telefonica.

Your capital is at risk. Spreadbetting only available in UK.

Customer Support.

How Do We Test A Broker's Customer Support?

Traders tend to underestimate customer support, but it might be a crucial feature in moments of crisis. In our rating, we check the contact methods available, how accessible a live agent is and how helpful the responses are. This information will allow you to know if a broker can provide full support when you need it.

OANDA offers customer support 24/5 via live chat and phone. Support via email is 24/7. We received fast and helpful responses in our tests. We rate support at OANDA as better than average for the industry.

OANDA Live Chat Support.

We tested customer support with a wide variety of queries, ranging from inactivity fees to the order types available. Chat support responded within seconds, and emails were typically responded to within one business day. Via phone, we also received good support from industry-savvy agents.

If you do not have a demo or live account, customer support via chat is harder to access, and it is necessary to navigate several questions from a chatbot. However, once you have an account and select chat from within the client portal, it typically takes only a short time to receive a response.

Customer Service Languages Chinese | Spanish | English | German.

Deposits & Withdrawals.

How Do We Test A Broker's Deposit and Withdrawal?

The deposit or withdrawal process can be a tricky one. You may discover that there are hidden fees, or that withdrawal times are longer than you anticipated. We check these factors and others so you know what to expect when trading with this broker.

Deposits and withdrawals at OANDA Global Markets Ltd can be made via bank transfer, credit card, and debit card. In some regions, clients can use alternative methods such as digital wallets. Processing times are relatively fast for the industry. While deposits are free, there is a fee for withdrawals via bank transfer.

OANDA Deposits and Withdrawals.

The tables below break down the fees and processing times for each deposit and withdrawal method.


Deposit Method Fees Processing Time Credit and debit card 0 Immediate Bank wire and bank transfer 0 One to three business days for domestic wire transfers. Up to five business days for international wire transfers. Skrill 0 Up to 1 business day Neteller 0 Up to 1 business day.

Note: While OANDA does not charge deposit fees, you may be charged by your payment provider or bank when depositing funds into your account.


Withdrawal Method Fees Processing Time Credit and debit card 0 1 to 6 business days. Bank wire transfer 20 1 to 5 business days Skrill 0 Up to 1 business day Neteller 0 Up to 1 business day.

OANDA returns all funds to the same source. If, for instance, you deposited using a credit card, you would need to withdraw funds back to that same card.

Account Types and Terms.

How Do We Test A Broker's Account Types and Terms?

In order to achieve your trading goals, you need to choose the right account. We evaluate each broker's account types, how easy it is to open an account with them, and the steps involved, so you can decide if it is worth your time to open an account.

The account opening process at OANDA is fully digital and can be completed within a short time via the company website. OANDA Global Markets Ltd offers demo, standard and Islamic accounts.

Account Application.

To open an individual account at OANDA Global Markets Ltd , prospective clients must provide their personal details, citizenship, home address, employment status. Finally, clients must verify their identity (passport, national ID card, or driving license) and address (bank statements, utility bill, or government-issued photo ID). Available base currencies are EUR, HKD, SGD, AUD, CHF, and USD.

Demo Accounts.

OANDA offers demo accounts that clients can use across all of its platforms. Demo accounts are especially important for beginners as they allow them to practice their strategies and get comfortable with the trading platform without risking any real money.

The demo account features live quotes and simulates live market conditions in assets such as forex and CFDs on commodities, indices, and stocks. Once users have gotten up to speed on a demo account, they can easily switch to a live account.

Islamic Accounts.

OANDA offers a swap-free Islamic account that adheres to the principles of Sharia law.


One of the reasons traders are attracted to the forex markets is the high degree of available leverage. Leverage is the use of borrowed funds to increase the size of your trading positions beyond what would be possible using only the cash in your account.

For example, OANDA Global Markets offers leverage of up to 1:200. This means you can control up to $200,000 in positions with a $1,000 account. Leverage is often described as a ‘double-edged sword’ as it can hurt you as much as it helps you. Traders must remember that it can amplify both their profits and their losses.

*OANDA does not accept new European clients at the moment.

Supported Countries.

OANDA takes clients from the majority of countries globally. However, clients are not accepted from China, India, North Korea, and Iran.

Your capital is at risk. Spreadbetting only available in UK.


How Do We Test A Broker's Research?

Research options provided by brokers may not be seen as the most important feature for some traders, but they can give you an edge over the competition. Staying on top of important market news announcements and being aware of big themes can be very helpful. The rating system provides a clear picture of how well your broker fulfills this service.

OANDA shines in the area of research, with industry-leading analysis available from the MarketPulse website and news from Dow Jones. A strong flow of frequently updated content is available in written, video, and podcast formats. OANDA also provides analysis from third-party provider Autochartist.

OANDA Research.

OANDA’s news and research portal,, offers insightful analysis covering both fundamental and technical analysis across forex, indices, commodities, and cryptocurrencies. The Week Ahead articles keep traders abreast of upcoming economic events and what to expect. Other articles and videos are more technical, and traders can get ideas from chart patterns and support and resistance levels.

Dow Jones News Wire.

OANDA clients can also stay informed with the Dow Jones FX Select news feed. This provides real-time news, data, and insights from a global team of business news reporters and editors. The feed can be accessed from OANDA’s web, desktop, and mobile platforms and is available in a variety of languages.


How Do We Test A Broker's Education?

Educating yourself on how to trade the financial markets can make the difference between success and failure. We check the educational content provided by the broker, its quality and suitability for beginners and advanced traders.

OANDA has an impressive range of educational offerings, from platform tutorials to live webinars with industry experts. The volume and quality of the materials are better than average for the industry.

OANDA Education.

OANDA’s educational resources include the basics, such as a demo account and platform tutorials. They also go further to offer a wide variety of educational articles, videos, and live webinars.

The education section is broken down into 4 categories.

Getting started. This section features content covering order types, charts, and trading terminology. Tools and strategies. Fundamental and technical analysis concepts are explained in this section. Capital Management. Here the focus is on how to protect and manage your funds using margin, leverage, and stop-loss orders. Live and recorded webinars. These include topics such as risk management, Fibonacci, and platform tutorials.

While the quality of the content is good, the organization of materials could be improved, for example, by adding progress tracking.

The Bottom Line.

OANDA is a pioneer in the world of forex and CFD trading, with over 25 years of experience.

Many regional entities of OANDA are overseen by top-tier regulators, making it one of the safer brokers. Fees are not rock bottom but, on balance, better than average for the industry. OANDA outshines most rivals in the area of platforms, with choices that can suit everyone from beginners to highly sophisticated traders. Research and educational materials are also better than average and can cater to various experience levels. Reliable customer support rounds out a good overall offering from this broker.


Where is OANDA based?

OANDA Global Markets Ltd is based in the British Virgin Islands. The global headquarters of OANDA is in New York.

Is OANDA safe?

OANDA is overseen by multiple top-tier regulators, making it a relatively safe broker.

How does OANDA make money?

OANDA makes money from the bid/offer spread, swap fees, and miscellaneous account fees.

How do I deposit funds in an OANDA account?

Funds can be deposited via bank wire, credit card, Skrill and Neteller.

What is the minimum deposit for OANDA?

The minimum deposit at OANDA is $0.

How do I withdraw money from OANDA?

Clients can withdraw funds via bank transfer, credit card, Skrill and Neteller.

How long does it take to withdraw money from an account at OANDA?

Withdrawals via bank wire take 1 to 5 business days.

How much is the maximum leverage at OANDA?

The maximum leverage at OANDA Global Markets Ltd is 1:200.

How can I open an account with OANDA?

An account can be opened via the website (

What platforms does OANDA offer?

OANDA provides the OANDA Trade web platform, MetaTrader 4 and the OANDA Trade desktop platform.

What are the withdrawal fees at OANDA?

Withdrawals via credit card are free, and via bank wire, there is a fee of $20.

Is OANDA suitable for beginners?

With a demo account and good educational resources, we judge that OANDA is a suitable broker for beginners.

Does OANDA offer a demo account?

Yes, Oanda provides demo accounts for each of its platforms.

Your capital is at risk. Spreadbetting only available in UK.

See OANDA Full Information.

Broker General Information.

Trading Features.

Other Details.

Headquarters Country.

United States.

Foundation Year.


FCA (United Kingdom), ASIC (Australia), CFTC (United States), IIROC (Canada), FSA(JP) (Japan), FSC (Belize), MAS (Singapore), MFSA (Malta)

Publicly Traded.

Number Of Employees.

Trading Desk Type.

Market Maker.

Trading platforms.

MT4, MT5, Oanda fxTrade.

Restricted Countries.

Turkey, Barbados, Burkina Faso, Congo, Cuba, Ghana, Jamaica, Jordan, North Korea, Morocco, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Iran, Iraq, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Afghanistan, Cayman Islands, Senegal, Albania, Trinidad and Tobago, Somalia, Yemen, Botswana, Uganda, Syria, Cambodia, Vanuatu, Mauritius, Libya, Myanmar, Pakistan, Haiti, South Sudan, Sudan, Bahamas, Zimbabwe.

Supported Languages.

English, Spanish, German, Chinese.

Max Leverage.

1:30 (FCA), 1:30 (ASIC), 1:50 (CFTC), 1:45 (IIROC), 1:25 (FSA(JP)), 1:200 (FSC), 1:20 (MAS), 1:30 (MFSA)

Deposit Options.

Wire Transfer, Credit Card, Skrill, Neteller, Debit Card.

Withdrawal Options.

Wire Transfer, Credit Card, Skrill, Neteller, Debit Card.


Bitcoin Cash, Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ethereum.

Products (CFD)

Currencies, Commodities, Indices, Stocks, Crypto.

Demo Account.

Islamic Account.

Segregated Account.

Managed Account.

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Forex oanda 1

OANDA Review 2021: Fees, Services and More.

Do you want to convert currencies? Would you like to learn about historic exchange rates or transfer money internationally? Most importantly, would you like to invest in foreign currencies to boost your portfolio’s performance? OANDA advertises itself as the place to do all of these things. Whether or not it’s the go-to place for currency conversion, this platform does offer a solid, if not particularly inventive, option for currency trading online.

Currency investing is best begun with the insights and guidance of an experienced financial advisor.

Services & Features: What Does OANDA Offer?

OANDA is a feature-limited trading platform. This means that only offers certain assets to trade. Specifically, investors on this platform can only trade foreign currencies (forex). They will not have access to common asset classes like stocks, bonds, ETFs and mutual funds. It is also noteworthy for accepting U.S. clients. Many global currency marketplaces aren’t regulated by U.S. authorities, and so aren’t available to American investors.

The limited nature of OANDA as a platform means that it is best suited for committed investors. This is a specialized tool. You will need an additional trading platform to manage the bulk of your investment portfolio, as OANDA does not offer standard assets.

As noted further below, OANDA also does not offer an especially well designed trading platform. This is particularly true of its web client, which is unfortunately cluttered and unintuitive.

As a highly technical field, currency trading requires a wealth of highly specific information. OANDA meets this need well. Investors can access dozens of technical indicators ranging from Bollinger Bands to Volume Oscillators, and have access to a full range of charting tools for displaying this information. You can build this information directly into pricing charts or align them alongside depending on what works for you. However, this is an area the platform’s design limits become increasingly to manage. The tight interface makes it difficult to fully use OANDA’s various technical indicators and visualization tools. The screen quickly becomes crammed with information, making it difficult to actually follow the many data points that you can summon up.

OANDA offers basic trading options and investors can pull up their trade execution screen directly from pricing charts. Within this field you can choose basic limit and stop orders, as well as stop limit and take profit orders. This is a standard set of options. Unfortunately, OANDA does not offer some of the more complex trading orders that many other forex platforms support, such as conditional and intelligent orders.

Finally, OANDA has an outstanding set of educational tools for both learning about the forex market and conducting fundamental analysis. While none of these tools are available from within OANDA’s trading platform itself, you can click basic links from within the platform to access them. This is particularly true of Market Pulse, an extensive site dedicated to news and education on the subject of currency trading, as well as the OANDA newsfeed.

Fees: How Much Does OANDA Cost?

From the user end side of things, there are largely four types of fees to look out for:

Trading fees. Any form of fee attached to each trade that you make. This can (relatively rarely) come in the form of a flat fee, or more often the broker will charge you what’s known as the spread. This is the difference, if any, between the buying and the selling price of an asset. Trading commissions. This is when a broker will charge you a percentage based on the volume or value of each trade. Inactivity fees. Any fees that the broker charges you for not trading, such as if it charges you for keeping money in a brokerage account. Non-trading/Other fees. Any form of fee for trading on this platform not covered above. For example, a brokerage might charge you for making deposits into your brokerage account or taking money out.

When trading currency, it is essential to understand the concept of “pips.”

Pips are a shorthand used by traders in several different financial sectors. A single pip refers to the smallest amount by which prices of an asset can change, regardless of that asset’s class or market. In foreign currency markets, prices are almost always expressed out to four decimal places. This means that a single pip will mean 0.0001 (1/100 of 1 percent) in whatever unit of currency is being traded. This can also be referred to as one basis point.

Note, however, that a pip does not always have to mean 0.0001. A pip is defined as the smallest unit of change for a given asset regardless of how that unit is measured. If, for some reason, a particular asset were measured in tenths of a cent, then a pip would mean 0.1.

As is common with forex trading platforms, OANDA charges a per-trade commission based on the bid-ask spread. This can make pricing difficult to pin down given that the spread on any given pair of assets is in constant fluctuation. Common currency pairs will also tend to have lower spreads than uncommon ones. The upshot is that what you pay on OANDA, as with any currency site, will depend on what you trade and when.

OANDA offers two account models with different pricing structures. Its spread-only model has higher bid-ask spreads, and investors only pay those commissions. You can also open a core pricing account. This model offers much lower spreads but also charges a flat commission of $5 per 100,000 units of currency traded. (Investors who are new to currency trading should take note of the volumes at work here. This is the scale at which currency traders have to operate in order to make a profit.)

As with all forex trading sites, OANDA charges an interest rate on any positions held overnight. The platform also charges an inactivity fee after 12 months of no trading, calculated as 10 units of the account’s base currency. Finally, OANDA has a list of ancillary fees that attach to making deposits, withdrawing money and several other common activities.

Effectiveness: How Well Does OANDA Work?

From a review standpoint, OANDA is essentially a conflict of design vs. function. OANDA offers everything a currency trader might want in a standard platform. Its educational tools and fundamental analysis options are outstanding, and investors who are looking to make bets based on factors such as economic conditions and news events will do well to look here. You can build just about any standard position and technical trader will not want for data to analyze.

That said, functionally OANDA doesn’t really offer anything you haven’t seen before. Its technical indicators are thorough but it offers no new features in terms of data or data analysis. It does not have options for building smart orders, and in in fact the platform generally has no features that will surprise you. In an era where currency trading platforms are pushing the boundaries on how to creatively invest, this kind of originality is notable in its absence.

In addition, the design of OANDA’s platform leaves much to be desired. The best word for this platform’s interface is “cramped.” Data piles on top of itself when you try to build charts for technical analysis, and unnecessary windows compete on the screen for space. Lining up two currencies side-by-side reduces the information in both windows considerably, and even the tool for buying/selling assets quickly gets lost in the jumble.

These design flaws are particularly a problem given OANDA’s lack of functional creativity.

Bottom Line.

OANDA is a dedicated forex trading platform. It is a serviceable product and works perfectly well, but interface design issues and a lack of innovative features mean that it doesn’t stand out in a crowded marketplace. However, investors who particularly rely on fundamental analysis may want to consider it.

Tips for Investing.

Forex is a risk, there’s no question about that, but sometimes you want to take some risks with your money. SmartAsset’s matching tool matches you with up to three financial advisors who serve your area, and you can interview your advisor matches at no cost to decide which one is right for you. If you’re ready to find an advisor who can help you achieve your financial goals, get started now. Since currency trading is one of the riskier types of investments it’s important to keep close tabs on how much of your portfolio goes into such trading. A free, easy-to-use asset allocation calculator can be immensely helpful in keep your investments balanced.

Photo credit: © Huang, ©, ©

Forex oanda

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Understanding "lotsize" for forex, FXCM vs Oanda.

Started By:

Douglas Stridsberg INVESTOR.

| Reward Discussion.

In the symbol-properties-database.csv file, I see two columns that I don't understand, relating to forex: contract multiplier and lotsize . No idea what contract multiplier is but in my mind, lot size would represent the USD amount notional of 1 contract, i.e. $100,000. But in the case of FXCM, lot size is set to "1000" and in the case of Oanda, it's "1".

Why the difference? And what do these two columns represent? How should I translate this information into how many "traditional" lots I am buying and selling?


The material on this website is provided for informational purposes only and does not constitute an offer to sell, a solicitation to buy, or a recommendation or endorsement for any security or strategy, nor does it constitute an offer to provide investment advisory services by QuantConnect. In addition, the material offers no opinion with respect to the suitability of any security or specific investment. QuantConnect makes no guarantees as to the accuracy or completeness of the views expressed in the website. The views are subject to change, and may have become unreliable for various reasons, including changes in market conditions or economic circumstances. All investments involve risk, including loss of principal. You should consult with an investment professional before making any investment decisions.


The material on this website is provided for informational purposes only and does not constitute an offer to sell, a solicitation to buy, or a recommendation or endorsement for any security or strategy, nor does it constitute an offer to provide investment advisory services by QuantConnect. In addition, the material offers no opinion with respect to the suitability of any security or specific investment. QuantConnect makes no guarantees as to the accuracy or completeness of the views expressed in the website. The views are subject to change, and may have become unreliable for various reasons, including changes in market conditions or economic circumstances. All investments involve risk, including loss of principal. You should consult with an investment professional before making any investment decisions.

In Forex trading, the order quantity should be a multiple of lot size. The specific lot size depends on the brokerage and currency pair. FXCM is commonly rounded to the nearest 1,000. OANDA has a lot size of 1. If you place an order for a lot size not supported by your brokerage it will be automatically rounded down to the nearest size. You can find details in this Bootcamp lesson.

The contract multiplier is the contract size. It is often used in option contract and is determined by each exchange. For example, the contract multiplier for one option is 100, it means that every 1 option contract gives the buyer the right to buy 100 shares from the option seller. For currency pairs, the contract multiplier is 1. You can also trade CFD with FXCM and Oanda. For Cfd contract, the multiplier is the amount a trader would earn per 1 contract if the instrument moved one point . For details, you can refer to this link.

Thanks for explaining the contract multiplier.

Regarding lot size - I come from a world where (in FX), 1 lot is a standard amount that grants you $10 per pip move (as you're trading $100,000 of the quote currency). You're telling me FXCM rounds to the nearest one thousand lots , i.e. meaning the minimum contract size is $10,000 per pip?! That can't be right. Not sure about our terminology here but we must be talking about different things.

For example, the lot size for EURUSD is 1000, it means when you place the order, the order quantity should be a multiple of 1000 like 1000, 2000, 3000, etc. If you use MarketOrder("EURUSD", 1005), your order quantity will be round to 1000.

This order size means you purchase 1000 EUR. When the rate goes up 1 pip for example from 1.20 to 1.21, your portfolio value increases 0.01*1000=$10.

The second paragraph is the explanation of contract multiplier, the contract multiplier of forex pairs with FXCM is 1, not 1000.

Lista Opção binária 1

Reduzir o tamanho do arquivo de suas planilhas Excel de arquivo.

Se o tamanho do arquivo da planilha for muito grande, experimente as dicas a seguir para torná-la mais gerenciável.

Salve sua planilha no formato binário (.xslb)

Você pode reduzir o tamanho do arquivo salvando sua planilha como uma pasta de trabalho binária (.xslb) em vez do formato padrão (.xslx). O formato padrão é baseado em XML, o que é importante se você estiver usando seus dados com programas de terceiros porque XML é um padrão aberto. No entanto, para a maioria das finalidades, o formato binário é suficiente e salva em um arquivo menor.

Vá para Arquivo > Opções > Salvar . Em Salvar pastas de trabalho , na lista Salvar arquivos neste formato, selecione Excel De trabalho binário.

Essa opção define o formato binário como padrão. Se você quiser manter o padrão para Excel pasta de trabalho (.xlsx), mas salvar o arquivo atual como binário, selecione a opção na caixa de diálogo Salvar como.

Observação: Se o arquivo estiver localizado em uma biblioteca SharePoint, talvez você não veja a opção Salvar como. Se esse for o caso, você pode salvar uma cópia em sua unidade local, salvar essa cópia como um binário e substituir o arquivo original pelo novo binário.

Vá para Arquivo > Salvar como e, se essa for a primeira vez que você estiver salvando o arquivo, selecione um local. Na lista de tipos de arquivo, selecione Excel Pasta de Trabalho Binária (*.xlsb) .

Salve sua planilha no formato binário (.xslb)

Você pode reduzir o tamanho do arquivo salvando sua planilha como uma pasta de trabalho binária (.xslb) em vez do formato padrão (.xslx). O formato padrão é baseado em XML, o que é importante se você estiver usando seus dados com programas de terceiros porque XML é um padrão aberto. No entanto, para a maioria das finalidades, o formato binário é suficiente e salva em um arquivo menor.

Vá para Arquivo > Opções > Salvar . Em Salvar pastas de trabalho , na lista Salvar arquivos neste formato, selecione Excel De trabalho binário.

Essa opção define o formato binário como padrão.

Se você quiser manter o padrão para Excel pasta de trabalho (.xlsx), mas salvar o arquivo atual como binário, selecione a opção na caixa de diálogo Salvar como:

Vá para Arquivo > Salvar como . Na lista Salvar como tipo, selecione Excel De trabalho binário (*.xlsb) .

Reduzir o número de planilhas.

Se você tiver planilhas com dados que não está usando e que não contenham nenhuma fórmula que esteja usando, exclua-as da planilha.

Quanto mais pontos de dados você tiver na pasta de trabalho, maior será o tamanho do arquivo. Remover dados nãousados reduzirá o tamanho do arquivo.

Salvar imagens em resoluções inferiores.

Vá para Arquivo > Opções > Avançado . Em Tamanho e Qualidade da Imagem, faça o seguinte: Selecione Descartar dados de edição . Essa opção remove os dados armazenados usados para restaurar a imagem ao seu estado original após a edição. Observe que, se você descartar os dados de edição, não poderá restaurar a imagem. Certifique-se de que Não compactar imagens no arquivo não está selecionado. Na lista Resolução padrão, selecione uma resolução de 150ppi ou inferior. Na maioria dos casos, você não precisará que a resolução seja superior a essa.

Compactar imagens.

Selecione uma imagem em seu documento. A guia Formato de Imagem aparece na faixa de opções. Na guia Formato de Imagem, no grupo Ajustar, selecione Compactar Imagens . Em Opções de compactação, faça o seguinte: Para compactar todas as imagens no arquivo, descompacte Aplicar somente a esta imagem . Se essa opção estiver selecionada, as alterações feitas aqui afetarão apenas a imagem selecionada. Selecione Excluir áreas cortadas de imagens . Essa opção remove os dados da imagem cortada, mas observe que você não poderá restaurá-los. Em Resolução, faça o seguinte: Selecione Usar resolução padrão .

Não salve o cache de pivô com o arquivo.

Se sua planilha contiver uma tabela dinâmica, você poderá reduzir o tamanho do arquivo ao não salvar o cache de dados de origem da tabela dinâmica com o arquivo e, em vez disso, ter a atualização do cache de dados ao abrir a planilha.

Selecione qualquer célula na tabela dinâmica. Na guia Análise de Tabela Dinâmica, no grupo Tabela Dinâmica, selecione Opções . Na caixa de diálogo Opções de Tabela Dinâmica, selecione a guia Dados e faça o seguinte: Desmarque Salvar dados de origem com o arquivo . Selecione Atualizar dados ao abrir o arquivo .

Forex no deposit bonus 9

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Forex no deposit bonus 8

Bonuses for articles.

You can become one of the authors of the AZA blog and share your ideas, strategies, market analysis and experience with other traders around the world.

For each Unique Article that will be checked and posted on the AZA blog, you will get a bonus account with 10 USD . Regularly write new Articles , and each time you will be rewarded with a new Bonus account with 10 USD after posting an article on the AZA blog. Invite other authors and get a new bonus account with 10 USD for their First published article. For the withdrawal of 10 USD of Profit the volume of your closed orders must be equal to or more than 300,000 USD (or 3 standard Lot). You can withdraw or transfer to a maximum of 30 USD Profit from one Bonus trading account. Thus, you will need to have the Volume of closed deals equal to or more than 900,000 USD (or 9 standard lots). You can Withdraw profit by Cryptocurrencies and E-wallets. Bonus is available for all countries.

Requirements for the article.

1. The content of the article should be about Forex trading , Finance, Investments, Energies, Precious Metals, Currencies, Cryptocurrencies, Indices and Stocks. The article can explain strategies, contain economic analytics and trading tips, describe companies available for trading on the MT 7 trading platform, can teach methods of using indicators and oscillators.

2. The article must have a Title from 45 to 70 characters and a Brief description from 150 to 160 characters.

3. The body of the article must contain at least 6000 characters with no spaces or more.

4. The article body text uniqueness must be at least 85 % .

5. You can create a description in your own words of another article while observing the necessary uniqueness of the text.

6. The text of the article must be in English .

7. The article should contain the required keywords that you can see when clicking on the Create Article button in the Client Portal.

8. The article should be written grammatically correct, contain punctuation marks and understandable to read.

9. The article should not contain links, promotions and descriptions of other brokers and companies.

Easy Steps to get the 10 USD bonus.

Create a unique article about trading The text will be checked Wait until the article is published Get a $10 on bonus account.

Is your article already written?

Create your article and once verified and published, you will get a 10 USD bonus.

How to get a bonus.

1. Sign up with existing email address.

2. You do not need to verify your account to receive the bonus.

3. After registration, you will receive by e-mail the login details for the Client Portal.

4. In the Client Portal in the Articles section, click the Create Article button and fill in the forms.

5. Reviewing and publishing an article can take from 1 hour to 2 business days. The editor will check the number of characters and the uniqueness of the article, write comments and change the status.

6. After the publish an article in the blog, you will get a 10 USD bonus within a business day.

7. Each 10 USD bonus will be credited only on new START account.

8. The trading account will be available on your account in the trading platform MT 7.

The bonus for an author invitation.

1. You can invite a new Author and get 10 USD for his First published article.

2. For an invitation, you can send the author a link with your Promo code . You can create referral links with your Promo code in the trading terminal in the Partner Tools section.

3. The new author must register with your link and Create an article.

4. In the Client Portal, the new author needs to Upload a document confirming his identity.

5. After the first article will be published, you will have access to a trading account with 10 USD on your balance.

6. You can regularly invite other authors, and each time you will receive a bonus account with 10 USD on balance for their First published article.

7. If your invited author Deposit funds to another live trading account, then you will be able to receive Partner rewards .

Profit withdrawal Terms.

1. The initial 10 USD Bonus Cannot be withdrawn and is provided for trading only.

2. You can withdraw only Profit from the Bonus trading account.

3. Only closed orders will be counted when calculating the required volume. The volume will be counted in which the duration is more than 5 minutes , and the profit or loss is equal to or greater than the spread for a trading instrument.

4. The maximum you can withdraw 30 USD of Profit from one bonus account.

5. The amount of a single transaction for withdrawal should be more than 10 USD .

6. The profit can be withdrawn with cryptocurrency only.

7. General conditions apply for withdrawals funds from an account with a bonus.

General Terms.

1. The 10 USD bonus is provided for trading and can be withdrawn or transferred.

2. The client cannot deposit and transfer funds to the bonus account.

3. The bonus account currency is USD.

4. It is allowed to open opposite positions when trading on a one bonus account.

5. AZA can refuse to publish an author until he corrects errors or increases the percentage of uniqueness of the text.

6. The author transfers all rights to the article and cannot publish it on other resources without the consent of AZA.

7. AZA can make any changes to the text without notifying the author.

8. AZA independently determines when and which articles, which authors and in which queue to publish on the blog.

9. If the author publishes on other sites the article that has already been published on the AZA blog, then the company has the right to block the client's bonus accounts.

10. AZA has the right not to publish the author's article, without notifying the reasons for the refusal.

11. A trading account with a 10 USD bonus will not be able to participate in other promotions and offers.

12. AZA has the right to restrict, modify or withdraw this offer at any time.

13. It is forbidden to create fake accounts for crediting multiple 10 USD bonuses. Hedging with bonus funds between trading accounts is prohibited. In the event of fraud or manipulation of bonus funds, the company has the right to withdraw the Bonuses from all or several of the client's accounts, deducting the company's losses in connection with this.

14. Bonus and Profit are not taxed. This offer is not valid in jurisdictions where we are not authorized to do business or where such offer is contrary to local laws and regulations.

14. Offer valid until August 31, 2023.


Can I withdraw the bonus for an article?

No, you cannot withdraw bonus funds. You can withdrawal only Profit from bonus account from 5 USD per transaction.

Can I use this account in the rating of PAMM accounts?

You cannot use the bonus account for PAMM account rating.

Will the bonus be canceled if I withdraw my profit?

$10 bonus remains on the balance of the trading account after the withdrawal of profits.

Can I get other bonuses for one trading account?

Each new $ 10 bonus is added only to a new trading account.

Can I transfer profits from different bonus accounts to one trading account?

You can transfer funds from different bonus accounts to one Live trading account if its terms of use do not prohibit this.

If I have withdrawn my profit, can I get the bonus again?

If you write a new article and it is published on the AZA blog, you will receive a $ 10 bonus on your new trading account.

If the market goes against me, in what order are funds spent?

If the market goes against you, your Profit spent first, and then the bonus.

Can I invite authors if I do not publish articles myself?

Yes, you can invite other authors if you don't create articles yourself. If they create articles to be published on the AZA blog, then you will receive a 10 USD bonus for each article.

Can I deposit funds to my Bonus account?

You cannot deposit funds or make a transfer to a bonus account.

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Lista Opção binária

string — Operações comuns de strings¶

A concatenação das constantes ascii lowercase e ascii uppercase descritas abaixo. Este valor não depende da localidade.

As letras minúsculas 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz' . Este valor não depende da localidade e não mudará.

As letras maiúsculas 'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ' . Este valor não depende da localidade e não mudará.

A string '0123456789' .

A string '0123456789abcdefABCDEF' .

A string '01234567' .

String de caracteres ASCII que são considerados caracteres de pontuação na localidade C : !"#$%&'()*+,-./:;?@[\]^ ` ~ .

String de caracteres ASCII que são considerados imprimíveis. Esta é uma combinação de digits , ascii letters , punctuation e whitespace .

Uma string contendo todos os caracteres ASCII que são considerados espaços em branco. Isso inclui espaço de caracteres, tabulação, avanço de linha, retorno, avanço de formulário e tabulação vertical.

Formatação personalizada de strings¶

A classe embutida de string fornece a capacidade de fazer substituições de variáveis complexas e formatação de valor por meio do método format() descrito na PEP 3101 . A classe Formatter no módulo string permite que você crie e personalize seus próprios comportamentos de formatação de strings usando a mesma implementação que o método embutido format() .

class string. Formatter ¶

A classe Formatter tem os seguintes métodos públicos:

O método principal da API. Ele aceita uma string de formato e um conjunto arbitrário de argumentos posicionais e nomeados. É apenas um invólucro que chama vformat() .

Alterado na versão 3.7: Um argumento de string de formato é agora somente-posicional .

vformat ( format string , args , kwargs ) ¶

Esta função realiza o trabalho real de formatação. Ela é exposta como uma função separada para casos onde você deseja passar um dicionário predefinido de argumentos, ao invés de desempacotar e empacotar novamente o dicionário como argumentos individuais usando a sintaxe *args e **kwargs . vformat() faz o trabalho de quebrar a string de formato em dados de caracteres e campos de substituição. Ela chama os vários métodos descritos abaixo.

Além disso, o Formatter define uma série de métodos que devem ser substituídos por subclasses:

Percorre format string e retorna um iterável de tuplas ( literal text , field name , format spec , conversion ). Isso é usado por vformat() para quebrar a string em texto literal ou campos de substituição.

Os valores na tupla representam conceitualmente um intervalo de texto literal seguido por um único campo de substituição. Se não houver texto literal (o que pode acontecer se dois campos de substituição ocorrerem consecutivamente), então literal text será uma string de comprimento zero. Se não houver campo de substituição, então os valores de field name , format spec e conversion serão None .

get field ( field name , args , kwargs ) ¶

Dado field name conforme retornado por parse() (veja acima), converte-o em um objeto a ser formatado. Retorna uma tupla (obj, used key). A versão padrão aceita strings no formato definido na PEP 3101 , como “0[name]” ou “label.title”. args e kwargs são como passados para vformat() . O valor de retorno used key tem o mesmo significado que o parâmetro key para get value() .

Obtém um determinado valor de campo. O argumento key será um inteiro ou uma string. Se for um inteiro, ele representa o índice do argumento posicional em args ; se for uma string, então representa um argumento nomeado em kwargs .

O parâmetro args é definido para a lista de argumentos posicionais para vformat() , e o parâmetro kwargs é definido para o dicionário de argumentos nomeados.

Para nomes de campos compostos, essas funções são chamadas apenas para o primeiro componente do nome do campo; os componentes subsequentes são tratados por meio de operações normais de atributo e indexação.

Então, por exemplo, a expressão de campo ‘’ faria com que get value() fosse chamado com um argumento key de 0. O atributo name será pesquisado após get value() retorna chamando a função embutida getattr() .

Se o índice ou palavra-chave se referir a um item que não existe, um IndexError ou KeyError deve ser levantada.

check unused args ( used args , args , kwargs ) ¶

Implementa a verificação de argumentos não usados, se desejar. Os argumentos para esta função são o conjunto de todas as chaves de argumento que foram realmente referidas na string de formato (inteiros para argumentos posicionais e strings para argumentos nomeados) e uma referência a args e kwargs que foi passada para vformat. O conjunto de argumentos não utilizados pode ser calculado a partir desses parâmetros. Presume-se que check unused args() levata uma exceção se a verificação falhar.

format field ( value , format spec ) ¶

format field() simplesmente chama o global embutido format() . O método é fornecido para que as subclasses possam substituí-lo.

convert field ( value , conversion ) ¶

Converte o valor (retornado por get field() ) dado um tipo de conversão (como na tupla retornada pelo método parse() ). A versão padrão entende os tipos de conversão “s” (str), “r” (repr) e “a” (ascii).

Sintaxe das strings de formato¶

O método str.format() e a classe Formatter compartilham a mesma sintaxe para strings de formato (embora no caso de Formatter , as subclasses possam definir sua própria sintaxe de string de formato). A sintaxe é relacionada a literais de string formatadas , mas é menos sofisticada e, em especial, não tem suporte a expressões arbitrárias.

As strings de formato contêm “campos de substituição” entre chaves <> . Tudo o que não estiver entre chaves é considerado texto literal, que é copiado inalterado para a saída. Se você precisar incluir um caractere de chave no texto literal, ele pode ser escapado duplicando: > .

A gramática para um campo de substituição é a seguinte:

replacement field ::= " field name ] ["!" conversion ] [":" format spec ] ">" field name ::= arg name ("." attribute name | "[" element index "]")* arg name ::= [ identifier | digit +] attribute name ::= identifier element index ::= digit + | index string index string ::= + conversion ::= "r" | "s" | "a" format spec ::=

Em termos menos formais, o campo de substituição pode começar com um field name que especifica o objeto cujo valor deve ser formatado e inserido na saída em vez do campo de substituição. O field name é opcionalmente seguido por um campo conversion , que é precedido por um ponto de exclamação '!' , e um format spec , que é precedido por dois pontos ':' . Eles especificam um formato não padrão para o valor de substituição.

O próprio field name começa com um arg name que é um número ou uma palavra-chave. Se for um número, ele se refere a um argumento posicional, e se for uma palavra-chave, ele se refere a um argumento nomeado. Se os arg names numéricos em uma string de formato forem 0, 1, 2, … em sequência, eles podem ser todos omitidos (não apenas alguns) e os números 0, 1, 2, … serão inseridos automaticamente nessa ordem . Como arg name não é delimitado por aspas, não é possível especificar chaves de dicionário arbitrárias (por exemplo, as strings '10' ou ':-]' ) dentro de uma string de formato. O arg name pode ser seguido por qualquer número de expressões de índice ou atributo. Uma expressão da forma '.name' seleciona o atributo nomeado usando getattr() , enquanto uma expressão da forma '[index]' faz uma pesquisa de índice usando getitem () .

Alterado na versão 3.1: Os especificadores de argumento posicional podem ser omitidos para str.format() , de forma que '<> <>'.format(a, b) é equivalente a ' '.format(a, b) .

Alterado na versão 3.4: Os especificadores de argumento posicional podem ser omitidos para Formatter .

Alguns exemplos simples de string de formato:

"First, thou shalt count to " # References first positional argument "Bring me a <> " # Implicitly references the first positional argument "From <> to <> " # Same as "From to " "My quest is " # References keyword argument 'name' "Weight in tons " # 'weight' attribute of first positional arg "Units destroyed: " # First element of keyword argument 'players'.

O campo conversion causa uma coerção de tipo antes da formatação. Normalmente, o trabalho de formatação de um valor é feito pelo método format () do próprio valor. No entanto, em alguns casos, é desejável forçar um tipo a ser formatado como uma string, substituindo sua própria definição de formatação. Ao converter o valor em uma string antes de chamar format () , a lógica de formatação normal é contornada.

Três sinalizadores de conversão são atualmente suportados: '!s' , que chama str() no valor; '!r' , que chama repr() ; e '!a' , que chama ascii() .

"Harold's a clever " # Calls str() on the argument first "Bring out the holy " # Calls repr() on the argument first "More " # Calls ascii() on the argument first.

O campo format spec contém uma especificação de como o valor deve ser apresentado, incluindo detalhes como largura do campo, alinhamento, preenchimento, precisão decimal e assim por diante. Cada tipo de valor pode definir sua própria “minilinguagem de formatação” ou interpretação de format spec .

A maioria dos tipos embutidos oferece suporte a uma minilinguagem de formatação comum, que é descrita na próxima seção.

Um campo format spec também pode incluir campos de substituição aninhados dentro dele. Esses campos de substituição aninhados podem conter um nome de campo, sinalizador de conversão e especificação de formato, mas um aninhamento mais profundo não é permitido. Os campos de substituição em format spec são substituídos antes que a string format spec seja interpretada. Isso permite que a formatação de um valor seja especificada dinamicamente.

Veja a seção Exemplos de formato para alguns exemplos.

Minilinguagem de especificação de formato¶

“Especificações de formato” são usadas nos campos de substituição contidos em uma string de formato para definir como os valores individuais são apresentados (consulte Sintaxe das strings de formato e Literais de string formatados ). Elas também podem ser passadas diretamente para a função embutida format() . Cada tipo formatável pode definir como a especificação do formato deve ser interpretada.

A maioria dos tipos embutidos implementa as seguintes opções para especificações de formato, embora algumas das opções de formatação sejam suportadas apenas pelos tipos numéricos.

Uma convenção geral é que uma especificação de formato vazia produz o mesmo resultado como se você tivesse chamado str() no valor. Uma especificação de formato não vazio normalmente modifica o resultado.

A forma geral de um especificador de formato padrão é:

format spec ::= [[ fill ] align ][ sign ][z][#][0][ width ][ grouping option ][. precision ][ type ] fill ::= align ::= "" | "=" | "^" sign ::= "+" | "-" | " " width ::= digit + grouping option ::= " " | "," precision ::= digit + type ::= "b" | "c" | "d" | "e" | "E" | "f" | "F" | "g" | "G" | "n" | "o" | "s" | "x" | "X" | "%"

Se um valor align válido for especificado, ele pode ser precedido por um caractere de preenchimento fill que pode ser qualquer caractere e o padrão é um espaço se omitido. Não é possível usar uma chave literal (” ”) como o caractere fill em uma string formatada literal ou ao usar o método str.format() . No entanto, é possível inserir uma chave com um campo de substituição aninhado. Esta limitação não afeta a função format() .

O significado das várias opções de alinhamento é o seguinte:

Opção Significado ' Força o alinhamento à esquerda do campo dentro do espaço disponível (este é o padrão para a maioria dos objetos). '>' Força o alinhamento à direita do campo dentro do espaço disponível (este é o padrão para números). '=' Força o preenchimento a ser colocado após o sinal (se houver), mas antes dos dígitos. É usado para imprimir campos na forma “+000000120”. Esta opção de alinhamento só é válida para tipos numéricos. Torna-se o padrão para números quando “0” precede imediatamente a largura do campo. '^' Força a centralização do campo no espaço disponível.

Observe que, a menos que uma largura de campo mínima seja definida, a largura do campo sempre será do mesmo tamanho que os dados para preenchê-lo, de modo que a opção de alinhamento não tem significado neste caso.

A opção sign só é válida para tipos numéricos e pode ser um dos seguintes:

Opção Significado '+' indica que um sinal deve ser usado para números positivos e negativos. '-' indica que um sinal deve ser usado apenas para números negativos (este é o comportamento padrão). espaço indica que um espaço inicial deve ser usado em números positivos e um sinal de menos em números negativos.

A opção 'z' força valores de ponto flutuante de zero negativo para zero positivo após o arredondamento para a precisão do formato. Esta opção só é válida para tipos de apresentação de ponto flutuante.

Alterado na versão 3.11: Adicionada a opção 'z' (veja também PEP 682 ).

A opção '#' faz com que a “forma alternativa” seja usada para a conversão. A forma alternativa é definida de forma diferente para diferentes tipos. Esta opção é válida apenas para tipos inteiros, pontos flutuantes e complexos. Para inteiros, quando a saída binária, octal ou hexadecimal é usada, esta opção adiciona o prefixo respectivo '0b' , '0o' , '0x' ou '0X' ao valor de saída. Para pontos flutuante e complexo, a forma alternativa faz com que o resultado da conversão sempre contenha um caractere de ponto decimal, mesmo se nenhum dígito o seguir. Normalmente, um caractere de ponto decimal aparece no resultado dessas conversões apenas se um dígito o seguir. Além disso, para conversões 'g' e 'G' , os zeros finais não são removidos do resultado.

A opção ',' sinaliza o uso de uma vírgula para um separador de milhares. Para um separador que reconhece a localidade, use o tipo de apresentação inteiro 'n' .

Alterado na versão 3.1: Adicionada a opção ',' (veja também PEP 378 ).

A opção ' ' sinaliza o uso de um sublinhado para um separador de milhares para tipos de apresentação de ponto flutuante e para o tipo de apresentação de inteiro 'd' . Para os tipos de apresentação inteiros 'b' , 'o' , 'x' e 'X' , sublinhados serão inseridos a cada 4 dígitos. Para outros tipos de apresentação, especificar esta opção é um erro.

Alterado na versão 3.6: Adicionada a opção ' ' (veja também PEP 515 ).

width é um número inteiro decimal que define a largura total mínima do campo, incluindo quaisquer prefixos, separadores e outros caracteres de formatação. Se não for especificado, a largura do campo será determinada pelo conteúdo.

Quando nenhum alinhamento explícito é fornecido, preceder o campo width com um caractere zero ( '0' ) habilita o preenchimento por zero com reconhecimento de sinal para tipos numéricos. Isso é equivalente a um caractere de fill de valor '0' com um tipo de alignment de '=' .

Alterado na versão 3.10: Precedendo o campo width com '0' não afeta mais o alinhamento padrão para strings.

precision é um número decimal que indica quantos dígitos devem ser exibidos depois do ponto decimal para um valor de ponto flutuante formatado com 'f' e 'F' , ou antes e depois do ponto decimal para um valor de ponto flutuante formatado com 'g' ou 'G' . Para tipos não numéricos, o campo indica o tamanho máximo do campo – em outras palavras, quantos caracteres serão usados do conteúdo do campo. precision não é permitido para valores inteiros.

Finalmente, o type determina como os dados devem ser apresentados.

Os tipos de apresentação de string disponíveis são:

Tipo Significado 's' Formato de string. Este é o tipo padrão para strings e pode ser omitido. None O mesmo que 's' .

Os tipos de apresentação inteira disponíveis são:

Tipo Significado 'b' Formato binário. Exibe o número na base 2. 'c' Caractere. Converte o inteiro no caractere Unicode correspondente antes de imprimir. 'd' Inteiro decimal. Exibe o número na base 10. 'o' Formato octal. Exibe o número na base 8. 'x' Formato hexadecimal. Produz o número na base 16, usando letras minúsculas para os dígitos acima de 9. 'X' Formato hexadecimal. Produz o número na base 16, usando letras maiúsculas para os dígitos acima de 9. No caso de '#' ser especificado, o prefixo '0x' será maiúsculo para '0X' também. 'n' Número. É o mesmo que 'd' , exceto que usa a configuração local atual para inserir os caracteres separadores de número apropriados. None O mesmo que 'd' .

Além dos tipos de apresentação acima, os inteiros podem ser formatados com os tipos de apresentação de ponto flutuante listados abaixo (exceto 'n' e None ). Ao fazer isso, float() é usado para converter o inteiro em um número de ponto flutuante antes da formatação.

Os tipos de apresentação disponíveis para float e Decimal valores são:

Tipo Significado 'e' Notação científica. Para uma dada precisão p , formata o número em notação científica com a letra “e” separando o coeficiente do expoente. O coeficiente tem um dígito antes e p dígitos depois do ponto decimal, para um total de p + 1 dígitos significativos. Sem precisão fornecida, usa uma precisão de 6 dígitos após o ponto decimal para float , e mostra todos os dígitos de coeficiente para Decimal . Se nenhum dígito seguir o ponto decimal, o ponto decimal também é removido, a menos que a opção # seja usada. 'E' Notação científica. O mesmo que 'e' , exceto que usa um ‘E’ maiúsculo como caractere separador. 'f' Notação de ponto fixo. Para uma dada precisão p , formata o número como um número decimal com exatamente os p dígitos após o ponto decimal. Sem precisão fornecida, usa uma precisão de 6 dígitos após o ponto decimal para float , e usa uma precisão grande o suficiente para mostrar todos os dígitos de coeficiente para Decimal . Se nenhum dígito seguir o ponto decimal, o ponto decimal também é removido, a menos que a opção # seja usada. 'F' Notação de ponto fixo. O mesmo que 'f' , mas converte nan para NAN e inf para INF . 'g' Formato geral. Para uma determinada precisão p >= 1 , isso arredonda o número para p dígitos significativos e então formata o resultado em formato de ponto fixo ou em notação científica, dependendo de sua magnitude. Uma precisão de 0 é tratada como equivalente a uma precisão de 1 . As regras precisas são as seguintes: suponha que o resultado formatado com tipo de apresentação 'e' e precisão p-1 teria o expoente exp . Então, se m Sem precisão fornecida, usa uma precisão de 6 dígitos significativos para float . Para Decimal , o coeficiente do resultado é formado a partir dos dígitos do coeficiente do valor; a notação científica é usada para valores menores que 1e-6 em valor absoluto e valores onde o valor posicional do dígito menos significativo é maior que 1, e a notação de ponto fixo é usada de outra forma. Infinito positivo e negativo, zero positivo e negativo e nans, são formatados como inf , -inf , 0 , -0 e nan , respectivamente, independentemente da precisão. 'G' Formato geral. O mesmo que 'g' , exceto muda para 'E' se o número ficar muito grande. As representações de infinito e NaN também são maiúsculas. 'n' Número. É o mesmo que 'g' , exceto que usa a configuração da localidade atual para inserir os caracteres separadores de número apropriados. '%' Porcentagem. Multiplica o número por 100 e exibe no formato fixo ( 'f' ), seguido por um sinal de porcentagem. None Para float , é o mesmo que 'g' , exceto que quando a notação de ponto fixo é usada para formatar o resultado, ela sempre inclui pelo menos um dígito após a vírgula decimal. A precisão usada é tão grande quanto necessário para representar o valor fornecido fielmente. Para Decimal , é o mesmo que 'g' ou 'G' dependendo do valor de context.capitals para o contexto decimal atual. O efeito geral é combinar a saída de str() conforme alterada pelos outros modificadores de formato.

Exemplos de formato¶

Esta seção contém exemplos da sintaxe de str.format() e comparação com a antiga formatação % .

Na maioria dos casos a sintaxe é semelhante à antiga formatação de % , com a adição de <> e com : usado em vez de % . Por exemplo, '%03.2f' pode ser traduzido para '' .

A nova sintaxe de formato também oferece suporte a opções novas e diferentes, mostradas nos exemplos a seguir.

Acessando os argumentos por posição:

>>> ' , , ' . format ( 'a' , 'b' , 'c' ) 'a, b, c' >>> ' <> , <> , <> ' . format ( 'a' , 'b' , 'c' ) # 3.1+ only 'a, b, c' >>> ' , , ' . format ( 'a' , 'b' , 'c' ) 'c, b, a' >>> ' , , ' . format ( * 'abc' ) # unpacking argument sequence 'c, b, a' >>> ' ' . format ( 'abra' , 'cad' ) # arguments' indices can be repeated 'abracadabra'

Acessando os argumentos por nome:

>>> 'Coordinates: , ' . format ( latitude = '37.24N' , longitude = '-115.81W' ) 'Coordinates: 37.24N, -115.81W' >>> coord = 'latitude' : '37.24N' , 'longitude' : '-115.81W' > >>> 'Coordinates: , ' . format ( ** coord ) 'Coordinates: 37.24N, -115.81W'

Acessando os atributos dos argumentos:

>>> c = 3 - 5 j >>> ( 'The complex number is formed from the real part ' . 'and the imaginary part .' ) . format ( c ) 'The complex number (3-5j) is formed from the real part 3.0 and the imaginary part -5.0.' >>> class Point : . def init ( self , x , y ): . self . x , self . y = x , y . def str ( self ): . return 'Point( , )' . format ( self = self ) . >>> str ( Point ( 4 , 2 )) 'Point(4, 2)'

Acessando os itens dos argumentos:

>>> coord = ( 3 , 5 ) >>> 'X: ; Y: ' . format ( coord ) 'X: 3; Y: 5'

Substituindo %s e %r :

>>> "repr() shows quotes: ; str() doesn't: " . format ( 'test1' , 'test2' ) "repr() shows quotes: 'test1'; str() doesn't: test2"

Alinhando o texto e especificando uma largura:

>>> ' ' . format ( 'left aligned' ) 'left aligned ' >>> ' 30> ' . format ( 'right aligned' ) ' right aligned' >>> ' ' . format ( 'centered' ) ' centered ' >>> ' ' . format ( 'centered' ) # use '*' as a fill char '***********centered***********'

Substituindo %+f , %-f e % f e especificando um sinal:

>>> ' ; ' . format ( 3.14 , - 3.14 ) # show it always '+3.140000; -3.140000' >>> ' ; ' . format ( 3.14 , - 3.14 ) # show a space for positive numbers ' 3.140000; -3.140000' >>> ' ; ' . format ( 3.14 , - 3.14 ) # show only the minus -- same as '; ' '3.140000; -3.140000'

Substituindo %x e %o e convertendo o valor para bases diferentes:

>>> # format also supports binary numbers >>> "int: ; hex: ; oct: ; bin: " . format ( 42 ) 'int: 42; hex: 2a; oct: 52; bin: 101010' >>> # with 0x, 0o, or 0b as prefix: >>> "int: ; hex: ; oct: ; bin: " . format ( 42 ) 'int: 42; hex: 0x2a; oct: 0o52; bin: 0b101010'

Usando a vírgula como um separador de milhares:

>>> ' ' . format ( 1234567890 ) '1,234,567,890'

Expressando uma porcentagem:

>>> points = 19 >>> total = 22 >>> 'Correct answers: ' . format ( points / total ) 'Correct answers: 86.36%'

Usando formatação específica do tipo:

>>> import datetime >>> d = datetime . datetime ( 2010 , 7 , 4 , 12 , 15 , 58 ) >>> ' %d %H:%M:%S>' . format ( d ) '2010-07-04 12:15:58'

Argumentos de aninhamento e exemplos mais complexos:

>>> for align , text in zip ( '' , [ 'left' , 'center' , 'right' ]): . ' 16>' . format ( text , fill = align , align = align ) . 'left '^^^^^center^^^^^' '>>>>>>>>>>>right' >>> >>> octets = [ 192 , 168 , 0 , 1 ] >>> ' ' . format ( * octets ) 'C0A80001' >>> int ( , 16 ) 3232235521 >>> >>> width = 5 >>> for num in range ( 5 , 12 ): . for base in 'dXob' : . print ( ' >' . format ( num , base = base , width = width ), end = ' ' ) . print () . 5 5 5 101 6 6 6 110 7 7 7 111 8 8 10 1000 9 9 11 1001 10 A 12 1010 11 B 13 1011.

Strings de modelo¶

Strings de modelo fornecem substituições de string mais simples, conforme descrito em PEP 292 . Um caso de uso primário para strings de modelo é para internacionalização (i18n), uma vez que, nesse contexto, a sintaxe e a funcionalidade mais simples tornam mais fácil traduzir do que outros recursos embutidos de formatação de strings no Python. Como um exemplo de biblioteca construída sobre strings de modelo para i18n, veja o pacote flufl.i18n.

Strings de modelo oferecem suporte a substituições baseadas em $ , usando as seguintes regras:

$$ é um escape; é substituído por um único $ . $identifier nomeia um espaço reservado de substituição correspondendo a uma chave de mapeamento de "identifier" . Por padrão, "identifier" é restrito a qualquer string ASCII alfanumérica que não faz distinção entre maiúsculas e minúsculas (incluindo sublinhados) que começa com um sublinhado ou letra ASCII. O primeiro caractere não identificador após o caractere $ termina esta especificação de espaço reservado. $ é equivalente a $identifier . É necessário quando caracteres identificadores válidos seguem o marcador de posição, mas não fazem parte do marcador, como "$ification" .

Qualquer outra ocorrência de $ na string resultará em uma ValueError sendo levantada.

O módulo string fornece uma classe Template que implementa essas regras. Os métodos de Template são:

class string. Template ( template ) ¶

O construtor recebe um único argumento que é a string de modelo.

Executa a substituição do modelo, retornando uma nova string. mapping é qualquer objeto dicionário ou similar com chaves que correspondem aos marcadores de posição no modelo. Como alternativa, você pode fornecer argumentos nomeados, os quais são espaços reservados. Quando mapping e kwds são fornecidos e há duplicatas, os marcadores de kwds têm precedência.

Como substitute() , exceto que se os espaços reservados estiverem faltando em mapping e kwds , em vez de levantar uma exceção KeyError , o espaço reservado original aparecerá na string resultante intacta. Além disso, ao contrário de substitute() , qualquer outra ocorrência de $ simplesmente retornará $ em vez de levantar ValueError .

Embora outras exceções ainda possam ocorrer, esse método é chamado de “seguro” porque sempre tenta retornar uma string utilizável em vez de levantar uma exceção. Em outro sentido, safe substitute() pode ser qualquer coisa diferente de seguro, uma vez que irá ignorar silenciosamente modelos malformados contendo delimitadores pendentes, chaves não correspondidas ou espacos reservados que não são identificadores Python válidos.

Retorna falso se o modelo tiver espaços reservados inválidos que farão com que substitute() levante ValueError .

Novo na versão 3.11.

get identifiers ( ) ¶

Retorna uma lista dos identificadores válidos no modelo, na ordem em que aparecem pela primeira vez, ignorando quaisquer identificadores inválidos.

Novo na versão 3.11.

Instâncias de Template também fornecem um atributo de dados públicos:

Este é o objeto passado para o argumento template do construtor. Em geral, você não deve alterá-lo, mas o acesso somente leitura não é obrigatório.

Aqui está um exemplo de como usar uma instância de Template:

>>> from string import Template >>> s = Template ( '$who likes $what' ) >>> s . substitute ( who = 'tim' , what = 'kung pao' ) 'tim likes kung pao' >>> d = dict ( who = 'tim' ) >>> Template ( 'Give $who $100' ) . substitute ( d ) Traceback (most recent call last): . ValueError : Invalid placeholder in string: line 1, col 11 >>> Template ( '$who likes $what' ) . substitute ( d ) Traceback (most recent call last): . KeyError : 'what' >>> Template ( '$who likes $what' ) . safe substitute ( d ) 'tim likes $what'

Uso avançado: você pode derivar subclasses de Template para personalizar a sintaxe do espaço reservado, caractere delimitador ou toda a expressão regular usada para analisar strings de modelo. Para fazer isso, você pode substituir estes atributos de classe:

delimiter – Este é a string literal que descreve um delimitador de introdução do espaço reservado. O valor padrão é $ . Note que esta não deve ser uma expressão regular, já que a implementação irá chamar re.escape() nesta string conforme necessário. Observe também que você não pode alterar o delimitador após a criação da classe (ou seja, um delimitador diferente deve ser definido no espaço de nomes da classe da subclasse). idpattern – Esta é a expressão regular que descreve o padrão para espaço reservado sem envolto em chaves. O valor padrão é a expressão regular (?a:[ a-z][ a-z0-9]*) . Se for fornecido e braceidpattern for None , esse padrão também se aplicará o espaço reservado com chaves.

Nota Uma vez que flags padrão é re.IGNORECASE , o padrão [a-z] pode corresponder a alguns caracteres não ASCII. É por isso que usamos o sinalizador local a aqui.

Alterado na versão 3.7: braceidpattern pode ser usado para definir padrões separados usados ​​dentro e fora das chaves.

Novo na versão 3.7.

Novo na versão 3.2.

Como alternativa, você pode fornecer todo o padrão de expressão regular substituindo o atributo pattern de classe. Se você fizer isso, o valor deve ser um objeto de expressão regular com quatro grupos de captura nomeados. Os grupos de captura correspondem às regras fornecidas acima, junto com a regra inválida do espaço reservado:

escaped – Este grupo corresponde à sequência de escape, por exemplo $$ , no padrão. named – Este grupo corresponde ao nome do espaço reservado sem chaves; não deve incluir o delimitador no grupo de captura. braced – Este grupo corresponde ao nome do espaço reservado entre chaves; ele não deve incluir o delimitador ou chaves no grupo de captura. invalid – Esse grupo corresponde a qualquer outro padrão de delimitador (geralmente um único delimitador) e deve aparecer por último na expressão regular.

Os métodos nesta classe irão levantar ValueError se o padrão corresponder ao modelo sem que um desses grupos nomeados corresponda.

Funções auxiliares¶

string. capwords ( s , sep = None ) ¶

Divide o argumento em palavras usando str.split() , coloca cada palavra em maiúscula usando str.capitalize() , e junte as palavras em maiúsculas usando str.join() . Se o segundo argumento opcional sep estiver ausente ou None , os caracteres de espaço em branco são substituídos por um único espaço e os espaços em branco à esquerda e à direita são removidos, caso contrário sep é usado para dividir e unir as palavras.

Tabela de Conteúdo.

string — Operações comuns de strings Constantes de strings Formatação personalizada de strings Sintaxe das strings de formato Minilinguagem de especificação de formato Exemplos de formato.